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Apoptosis during the immune response

Cell arrest and cell death in mammalian preimplantation development: lessons from the bovine model. Apoptosis fenestrates chick cloacal membrane and occluded rectal cord and may have a minor role in removal of pharyngeal membranes. Spatiotemporal distribution of apoptosis during normal cloacal development in mice. PLoS Genet. Involution: apoptosis and tissue remodelling that convert the mammary gland from milk factory to a quiescent organ. Breast Cancer Res. Large-scale normal cell death in the developing rat kidney and its reduction by epidermal growth factor. Development , , Categories : Developmental Mechanism Pages with broken file links Apoptosis.

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Apoptosis and Development, Volume 114

This page was last modified on 1 June , at Privacy policy. Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below this will open a new external page. Mechanism Links : mitosis cell migration epithelial invagination epithelial mesenchymal transition mesenchymal epithelial transition epithelial mesenchymal interaction morphodynamics tube formation apoptosis autophagy axes formation time molecular.

Caspases and matrix metalloproteases facilitate collective behavior of non-neural ectoderm after hindbrain neuropore closure [3] "Mammalian brain is formed through neural tube closure NTC , wherein both ridges of opposing neural folds are fused in the midline and remodeled in the roof plate of the neural tube and overlying non-neural ectodermal layer.

Apoptosis is widely observed from the beginning of NTC at the neural ridges and is crucial for the proper progression of NTC, but its role after the closure remains less clear. The cells first gathered to the closing point and subsequently relocated as if they were released from the point. Inhibition of caspases or matrix metalloproteases with chemical inhibitors impaired the cell relocation. Large numbers of cells are eliminated by apoptosis in early neural development and during the formation of neural connections. However, our understanding of this life-or-death decision is incomplete, because it is difficult to identify dying cells by conventional strategies.

Live imaging is powerful for studying apoptosis, because it can trace a death-fated cell throughout its lifetime. The Drosophila sensory organ development is a convenient system for studying neural-cell selection via lateral inhibition. The eliminated differentiating neurons expressed neurogenic genes and high levels of activated Notch. Thus, live imaging allowed us to document the role of apoptosis in neural progenitor selection, and revealed that Notch activation is the mechanism determining which cells die during sensory organ development.

This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled. The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

Removing cells from the developing inner cell mass. Links: Blastocyst Development. Removing cells between digits fingers and toes of the upper and lower limbs. Links: Limb Development. These, in turn, phosphorylate and activate the transcription factor Stat3. This results in the induction of apoptosis and shedding of dying cells into the alveolar lumen. Neighbouring cells migrate to close the gap and maintain the integrity of the alveolar structure. Role in Health and Disease. Death Receptor Signalling.

Role of Mitochondria and bcl-2 proteins. Role of caspases and the apoptosome. The cytoskeleton. Adhesion molecules. Cell polarity and chemotaxis. Membrane ruffling. Apoptosis occurs during the normal development of multicellular organisms and continues throughout adult life. The combination of apoptosis and cell proliferation is responsible for shaping tissues and organs in developing embryos. For example the apoptosis of cells located in-between the toes allows for their separation.

Apoptosis is also an important part of the regulation of the immune system. F igure 1. View Original Download Slide. F igure 2. Quantitative analysis of the number of photoreceptor nuclei in the developing outer nuclear layer after the addition of nM ATRA or 9CRA to the retinal explants.

There were no differences in the number of cone nuclei in any treatment, and the differences therefore reflect selective decreases in the number of rods. F igure 3. F igure 4. The Kruskal—Wallis test followed by nonparametric multiple comparisons between the groups at each age showed that the amount of opsin varied significantly within each of the three age groups.

The data represent values from four to nine explants per treatment group. F igure 5. The reactions were visualized with FITC. Arrowheads indicate immunolabeled cell bodies. F igure 6. GCL, ganglion cell layer. F igure 7. F igure 8. The reactions were visualized with DAB. The authors thank Inger Holmqvist for excellent technical assistance. Dowling JE, Wald G. Vitamin A deficiency and night blindness.

Maintenance of opsin density in photoreceptor outer segments of retinoid-deprived rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Retinoic acid: a key molecule for eye and photoreceptor development. Characterization of three RXR genes that mediate the action of 9-cis retinoic acid. Genes Dev. Chambon P. A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins, I: a systematic study of their differential pattern of transcription during mouse organogenesis. De Luca LM. Retinoids and their receptors in differentiation, embryogenesis, and neoplasia.

Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins, II: their differential pattern of transcription during early morphogenesis in mouse embryos. Developmental expression of murine retinoid X receptor RXR genes.

Apoptosis in Development

Mech Dev. Asymmetrical retinoic acid synthesis in the dorsoventral axis of the retina. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in the generation of retinoic acid in the developing vertebrate: a central role of the eye. J Nutr. Godbout R. High levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase transcripts in the undifferentiated chick retina.


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Exp Eye Res. Changing patterns of the retinoic acid system in the developing retina. Dev Biol. Light-mediated retinoic acid production.

Apoptosis in homeostasis

Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive amacrine cells restricted in distribution to the dorsal retina. Vis Neurosci. Retinoic acid metabolism in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res. Rogers MB. Life-and-death decisions influenced by retinoids.

Curr Top Dev Biol. Mutat Res. Teratogenicity of low doses of all-trans retinoic acid in presomite mouse embryos. Bcl-2 inhibits retinoic acid- induced apoptosis during the neural differentiation of embryonal stem cells. J Cell Biol.

Retinoic acid treatment induces apoptosis or expression of a more differentiated phenotype on different fractions of cultured fetal rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. Retinoid effects in purified cultures of chick embryo retina neurons and photoreceptors. Retinoic acid promotes differentiation of photoreceptors in vitro.

Zhao S, Barnstable CJ. Differential effects of bFGF on development of the rat retina. Brain Res.

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Increase in retinyl palmitate concentration in eyes and livers and the concentration of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in eyes of vitiligo mutant mice. Analysis of esterification of retinoids in the retinal pigmented epithelium of the Mitf vit vitiligo mutant mouse.

Mol Vision. Histotypic differentiation of neonatal mouse retina in organ culture. Curr Eye Res. Selective development of one cone photoreceptor type in retinal organ culture. The retinal pigment epithelium is required for development and maintenance of the mouse neural retina.

Programmed Cell Death in Development

Curr Biol. Effects of retinal pigment epithelial cell-secreted factors on neonatal rat retinal explant progenitor cells. J Neurosci Res. RPE secreted proteins and antibody influence photoreceptor cell survival and maturation. Dev Brain Res.


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Abstract nr Photoreceptor-specific protein expression of mouse retina in organ culture and retardation of rd degeneration in vitro by a combination of basic fibroblast and nerve growth factors. Romijn HJ. Development and advantages of serum-free, chemically defined nutrient media for culturing of nerve tissue. Biol Cell. A procedure for culturing rat neocortex explants in a serum-free nutrient medium. J Neurosci Methods.