The ability to construct law readily though judicial action and interpretation would, in this context, appear to contribute more to innovation and adaptation. This is especially true given that these systems tend to enforce legal accountability ex post rather than ex ante, permitting administrators to act first and have the legality and efficacy of their actions assessed later. On the other hand, administrative traditions that require strict legal compliance—with codified legal systems and less interaction with social actors—have the potential to perform better. Of course, this assumption depends on others relating to enforcement and compliance, with some literature suggesting that, ceteris paribus, negotiated solutions produce higher levels of compliance.
As has already been noted, the legalism inherent in the Napoleonic and Germanic traditions presents, somewhat contradictory implications for policy innovation. On the one hand, the formality and legalism of these administrative traditions may limit the capacity to develop and implement new policies within the bureaucracy.
On the other, once a policy is adopted and fully legitimated, this style of administration may be very effective in ensuring full implementation. The fourth dimension concerns how scientific advice is organized, included, and considered in the design and implementation of policy innovations. Beyond the scientific information possessed by the bureaucracy itself, different public bureaucracies are better structured to receive and process advice from external sources.
The nature of an administrative system has a real and abiding influence on the capacity of governments to make and implement policies. These connections are often complex, and this special issue can only begin to outline the connections between administration and climate change adaptation policies. We have hypothesized the various ways in which administrative traditions—at both macro and micro levels—influence adaptation policy making. Even this rather cursory examination of linkages reveals their importance, however, providing a foundation for the more detailed empirical work contained in the articles of this special issue.
These contributions provide a balanced overview, with some placing greater emphasis on the role of individuals and their behavior and others on that of structures and rules see Table 2. According to the authors, the strongest evidence in this area relates to the dispersion of authority and horizontal coordination.
Their results demonstrate that administrative traditions hamper the introduction of new principles and approaches, and that there is a need to align those introduced with administrative traditions in order to prevent institutional misfits. One of the critical dimensions for adaptation is the question of how scientific knowledge concerning climate change enters public bureaucracies. The authors find that, even in systems where climate impacts are already felt and where scientific advice has been institutionalized through bureaucracy, there are significant barriers that still need to be addressed in order for progress on adaptation to be achieved.
Concentrating on Bangladesh as one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, Rahman and Tosun 61 examine what the bureaucratic regime for the implementation and management of climate adaptation projects looks like, and which types of bureaucrats are appointed to direct such projects. Paralleling state bureaucracy in general, the special bureaucracy in place for managing adaptation projects is both extensive and complex.
The management of adaptation projects is also similar to general public management patterns, where generalist administrators dominate the implementation process. The importance of international funding in this context indicates a possibility for affecting the performance of public bureaucracies. Vink and Schouten 75 , meanwhile, ask if international donor influence and reporting requirements under the UNFCCC have forced African countries to abandon their administrative traditions. This has, particularly in African countries, contributed to a better understanding of why overall progress on adaptation is limited Ford et al.
In most of the scholarship concerning public administration, the concept of administrative traditions has focused almost explicitly on nation states. By contrast, Klein and Juhola 38 investigate whether administrative traditions translate to fundamental differences in how the cities of Helsinki and New York have designed state—market—civil society governance arrangements for adaptation. The results suggest that administrative traditions matter even at the city level, where many other factors determine the uptake of adaptation measures.
The various articles in this special issue suggest that the four dimensions of administrative traditions that we hypothesized to be important for climate change adaptation—namely law and management, state and social actors, uniformity in the making and implementing of policy, and scientific advice—have affected how states respond to climate change. All of the articles demonstrate that bureaucracies are currently seeking ways to navigate climate change adaptation, and that existing institutions and practices are being reconsidered.
At the same time, the contributions also suggest that administrative traditions are part of a larger and more complex picture—one concerning how the public sector is responding to climate change. Clearly, one can question the influence they exert relative to the broader social and political forces shaping adaptation measures worldwide. Either way, these forces are certainly not disconnected from public bureaucracies and administrative traditions. Instead, the main difference appears to be in large part a function of the low levels of commitment on the part of certain political actors to legislate in this policy area.
Furthermore, even within those two broad categories there may be significant differences, with some presidentialist systems in Latin America e. The economic structure of a country may also influence the creation and implementation of climate change adaptation policy. States with significant economic sectors that may be impacted by climate change—for example, those exporting timber, cocoa, coffee, and other agricultural products—are expected to have greater political interest in investing in a more sustainable economy.
Adaptation is expensive both in terms of direct and indirect costs, and more affluent states are in a better position to absorb them. So where does this leave us with regard to further research on public bureaucracies and climate change adaptation?
- The Forensic Anthropology Laboratory.
- Myths and Realities About Corruption in Public Administration and its Discourse in Greece.
- Bureaucracy: Definition, Examples, Pros and Cons;
Several remarks can be made here. First, in light of the increasing importance of climate change adaptation for many states worldwide, as well as the global policy agenda, we can expect that many bureaucracies will be experimenting with climate change adaptation more explicitly over the next few years. Second, the emergence of a more polycentric climate governance system offers the possibility of designing and implementing policies that are aligned to existing administrative traditions so as to prevent policy misfits. However, as demonstrated in several articles of this special issue e.
Finally, has examining adaptation as a policy area helped us to understand administrative traditions more generally? First and foremost, the papers in this special issue can be regarded as assessments of the ways in which administrative traditions were able to respond to a new challenge—demonstrating the variety of responses on the one hand, and the persistence of basic dimensions on the other. Other pressing issues that have recently emerged and which affect most aspects of bureaucracies e.
Trevelyan Wing deserves credit for language editing.
His research interests include comparative public policy, mechanisms of complex decision making, dynamics of policy dis integration, tracking adaptation policy, and the political and bureaucratic responses to climate change adaptation. His research interest include comparative public policy and administration and American public administration.
Her research concentrates on comparative public policy, international political economy, and public administration. She has published in journals such as European Journal of Political Research.
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Original Article Open Access. Robbert Biesbroek Corresponding Author E-mail address: robbert. Guy Peters University of Pittsburgh Search for more papers by this author. Br J Sociol. Oxford handbooks online. Merton R Bureaucratic structure and personality in reader in bureaucracy. Sklar RL The nature of class domination in Africa. In: Sklar RL ed African politics and problems in development. Taylor FW Principles and methods of scientific management. Harper, New York Google Scholar. Thompson V Modern organization. Alfred A. Knopf, New York Google Scholar.
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Successes and potential obstacles to change management in the public service
Workman S The dynamics of bureaucracy in the US Government: how congress and federal agencies process information and solve problems. Yaney G Bureaucracy as culture: a comment. Yazaki Y The effects of bureaucracy on political accountability and electoral selection. More specifically, strategic change involves an attempt to change current modes of cognition and action to enable the organization to take advantage of important opportunities or to cope with consequential environmental threats have investigated this topic in depth. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Published online Feb Mario Coccia. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Sep 14; Accepted Dec This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature of bureaucratization within public research bodies and its relationship to scientific performance, focusing on an Italian case-study. Keywords: Administrative burden, Administrative bureaucratization, Academic bureaucratization, Scientific performance, Research institutions, Universities.
Introduction Bureaucracy is a factor to be found in many large-scale organizations and in parts of most public sector organizations Green , pp. Does bureaucratization affect the scientific performance of public research units? Research Institutions and Bureaucratization: A Review of the Literature Weber , asserts that bureaucracy is the most modern, rational, and efficient administrative structure, and it can be applied to any kind of public and private organization.
Public Bureaucracy and Climate Change Adaptation
Open in a separate window. Lessons Learned and Causality Arguments about the Bureaucratization in Public Research Institutions Bureaucratization is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that has aspects that are important for increasing the efficiency of research organizations as well as of the whole economy of modern countries. Typology of bureaucratization in Public Research Organizations. Concluding Remarks I have shown that the hasty and uncertain Italian restructuring as well as the massification of academic research 5 have been generating higher academic bureaucratization and lower efficiency and research production within public research organizations.
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Change in Public Bureaucracies by Marshall W. Meyer - ixajibawumoj.tk
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