The medicinal properties of spices are summarisedin Table I. Introduction xxviiTable I. The first part deals with general aspects referred to the industry such as qualityspice production, quality assurance systems, decontamination techniques, packaging,spices as sources of natural colours and flavours, effect of Agreement on Agricultureon spice production and export, etc. The second part deals with detailed informationon individual spices. It is hoped that this book will form a good reference source forthose who are involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs.
Improved extraction and stabilization of natural food colourants. Indian Fd. Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium. Use of capsicum and turmeric as natural colours in the food industry. Indian Spices 35 3 : 9— Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Vol. Spices in our daily life. Satabdi Smaranika Vol. Radiation hygienization of spices and dry vegetable seasonings. Spice India 1 1 : 26— Guidelines for production of organic spice in India.
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Spice Board, Kochi, Kerala, India. Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs and spices 1Part IImproving the safety of herbs and spices. Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs and spices 31Detecting and controlling mycotoxincontamination of herbs and spicesD. Heperkan, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey1. Whilesome spices inhibit growth of microorganisms and some retard their growth othersreduce mycotoxin production Bullerman et al.
They can be invaded bybacteria, yeast and moulds themselves immediately after harvesting till final consumption Schwab et al. Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by different genera of mouldsunder favourable conditions.
Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 3 | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
Moulds can contaminate agricultural commodities duringharvesting, drying, processing and storage and some of them are capable of producingsecondary metabolites, causing acute or chronic diseases in human and animals. Mycotoxins can also be found in animals and animal products through the ingestionof mouldy feed. There are approximately two secondary metabolites per fungal species whichmeans that there are potentially 20, to , unique mycotoxins CAST, For example,fumonisin presence in corn is not considered to be an important hazard in Australia,because corn is not a frequent item in the diet Pitt and Hocking, On the otherhand, fumonisin in corn is considered to be among the primary important mycotoxinsin the USA Miller, Similarly, aflatoxin does not pose an important threat toconsumers in Europe, since it does not appear in high concentrations due to inconvenienttemperatures, and moreover the limits are extremely low and inspections are strict onimported products.
It keeps its importance in countries where the temperature isconvenient, such as in the USA Bhatnagar et al. Actually, blood andmilk analyses carried out in Europe show that consumers have been exposed to OTA Skaug et al. The kidney disease called Balkan Endemic Nefropati BEN particularly seen in the Balkans, has been proved to be a result of crop consumptioncontaining ochratoxin A and citrinin Vrabcheva et al. In the light of these evaluations, although it is difficult to arrange a generallist according to their importance, covering every country and every product, researchershave agreed that aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, trichotecenes and zearalenone ZEN are important mycotoxins Anklam and Stroka, ; Park, a.
The most important element in defining the type of mycotoxin humans are exposedto, is the dietary habits of communities.
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For example, herbs and spices constitute animportant part of the daily menu for some societies and are consumed in largequantities. It is customary to add red pepper to almost every dish in the southern andeastern regions of Turkey. Hencecontaminated spices and herbs will constitute a health hazard to consumers Geetaand Kulkarni, ; Freire et al. In essence aflatoxins are known hepatocarcinogens Henry et al.
Herbs are usually the leafyparts of the plant Farkas, and are more commonly used for medicinal ortherapeutic purposes. During harvesting and sun drying, spices and herbs can becontaminated with moulds. Many strains of moulds, while growing under favourableconditions, produce metabolites that are toxic to humans and animals.
These toxicsecondary metabolites are called mycotoxins. The growth of mould and the production of mycotoxins are influenced by intrinsicand extrinsic factors as well as stress factors and physical damage of kernels. Intrinsicfactors are related to the properties of the products such as moisture content or wateractivity aw , pH, redox potential Eh , nutrient content substrate , inhibitors andosmotic pressure.
The extrinsic factors are related to environmental conditions suchas temperature, relative humidity ERH and gases in the environment. Intrinsic andextrinsic factors promoting mycotoxin production can differ from mould to mould. For example P. It hasalready been shown in Denmark that ochratoxin A production in cereal dependsstrongly on climatic conditions Jorgensen and Petersen, Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs and spices 5ochratoxin in tropical climates Heenan et al. The maximumtemperature for the growth of A.
Deoxynivalenol is producedunder conditions of low oxygen tension. In growing crops, DON is not found Milleret al. In contrast, zearalenone requires oxygen saturation for optimal production,a condition seen after field crop senescence Miller, The higher temperatures and drought conditions also may favour A. These conditions should be present simultaneously; the presence ofonly one is not sufficient Payne, Researchers found that peanuts grown withadequate moisture did not contain aflatoxin. Colonisation by A. In addition to the production of aflatoxin before harvesting, the adverse conditionsduring drying, transporting and storing cause accumulation of higher amounts ofaflatoxin.
Aflatoxin synthesis starts after 24 hours depending on the conditions andreaches its maximum level between 36—60 hours Cary et al. Mycotoxins found in spices and herbs and the analysis method used are presentedin Table 1. As seen from the table, among spices and herbs the most frequentlystudied spice is red pepper and the most frequently encountered mycotoxins areaflatoxin and ochratoxin. Several mycotoxins were detected in spices and herbs suchas aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A, mycophenolic acid, penitrem A, zearalenoneand trichothecenes.
Aflatoxin can be produced before and after harvest in red pepper. Reddy etal. The amount of aflatoxin in red pepper listed in Table 1. Low levels of aflatoxin B1 0. In additionto aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, other mycotoxins such as fumonisin, zearalenone andtrichothecenes Patel et al. Table 1. Quick Upload. Featured Examples.
Creation Tutorial. Video Tutorial. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. The first part of the book reviews ways of improving the safety of herbs and spices. There are chapters on detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination, controlling pesticide and other residues, the use of irradiation and other techniques to decontaminate herbs and spices, packaging and storage, QA and HACCP systems.
Part two reviews the potential health benefits of herbs and spices with chapters discussing their role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease and promoting gut health. The final part of the book comprises chapters on twenty individual herbs and spices, covering such topics as chemical composition, cultivation and quality issues, processing, functional benefits and uses in food.
Herbs and spices reviewed range from asafoetida, capers and carambola to perilla, potato onion and spearmint.
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- Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 3.
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The final volume of this three-volume sequence completes the coverage of the main herbs and spices used in food processing Incorporates safety issues, production, main uses and regulations Reviews the potential health benefits of herbs and spices. Product Details Table of Contents.
Table of Contents Part 1 Improving the safety of herbs and spices: Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs and spices; Controlling pesticide and other residues in herbs and spices; Irradiation to decontaminate herbs and spices; Other decontamination techniques for herbs and spices; Packaging and storage of herbs and spices; QA and HACCP systems in herb and spice production. Part 2 Herbs and spices as functional ingredients and flavourings: The range of medicinal herbs and spices; Herbs, spices and cardiovascular disease; Herbs, spices and cancer; Herbs, spices and gut health; Volatiles from herbs and spices.
Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 2
Write a Review. All Pages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Editors: K. Hardcover ISBN: Paperback ISBN: Imprint: Woodhead Publishing. Published Date: 13th August Page Count: Sorry, this product is currently unavailable.
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