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About this Item: Ebury Press, Published by Carlton Books Sevenoaks About this Item: Carlton Books Sevenoaks, Condition: Good. Seller Inventory ZZ3. Published by Carlton Books Sevenoaks. About this Item: Carlton Books Sevenoaks. About this Item: Amphoto. Condition: Fair. A readable copy. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. Pages can include considerable notes-in pen or highlighter-but the notes cannot obscure the text. Seller Inventory GI5N Published by Anness Publishing. About this Item: Anness Publishing. A copy that has been read, but remains in excellent condition.

Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Seller Inventory GI4N Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. United Kingdom. You can make great photos with a smartphone and an app that allows you some control over the metering factors. An expensive camera won't magically turn you into a great photographer.

The major functional difference is the lack of the high performance phase-detection PD autofocus AF system, which has been a characteristic of Canon SLRs since If you need a compact camera and don't need the quickest autofocussing for moving subjects, it's worth a look, especially if you already have EF and EF-S lenses which can be mounted via an adapter. The EOS M now has its own forum. If you get one, make sure you have version 2.

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The Rebels are designed for casual use with a bias towards shooting JPEGs, and the higher models are designed for enthusiast and professional use with a bias towards shooting raw. There are only minor differences between any of the 18MP models in image quality. The crucial differences are the "maximum burst" and the ergonomics, but those differences don't matter much for things like holiday and party snaps or landscapes. If you're shooting raw only, a 60D can take up to 16 shots in three seconds, a 70D 15 in just over two seconds, a 7D 23 in three seconds, but a D will only take 6 in 1.

That matters a lot for shooting action, like sport or birds in flight. The sophisticated high-performance autofocus AF system of the 7D and 70D could also be a clincher. Current rumours predict a 7D replacement in , but there have been rumours about that for several years. The 70D also has the 19 point phase-detection AF system from the 7D, which includes AF microadjustment but misses out on some advanced functions like spot AF. If portability is a high priority you'll like the smaller grip and overall size of the Rebels, especially the compact D, whereas if you have large hands, or you want to make the most of your camera's performance and shooting features, you'll probably be more comfortable with a larger camera.

Or you could add a grip to a Rebel. The Rebels have pentamirror viewfinders and dedicated buttons for white balance and picture style, whereas the nnD and nD cameras give you a bigger, brighter, pentaprism viewfinder, a top LCD, and a multi-controller and quick control dial. That makes them better for demanding shooting conditions, particularly if you want to change things like aperture and shutter duration, AF point, and metering compensation , by touch while looking through the viewfinder.

You can't judge the merit of those features from their descriptions, you need to handle the cameras to get the difference they make. It's fine to start with an entry-level model and in a couple of years, when you have a better idea of what you want to do and the features you really need, check out the more advanced models, which will have new features and better performance by then. Check out these articles if you are unsure about getting a Rebel or something higher up the model range —. But don't forget that when you buy a DSLR you are also buying into a system of interchangeable lenses and accessories, so consider which system gives you the widest choice of lenses you can afford including lenses from independent manufacturers like Sigma, Tamron, and Tokina , for what you might want to do in the future.

In general, the widest range of lenses is available for Canon bodies. Don't base your camera choice on technical reviews of image sensor performance. Yes, the sensors in Sony and Nikon DSLRs do score better in many reviews than Canon sensors, but the difference in real-world use is insignificant compared to what the photographer does with it. The photographer with a sympatico camera has a better chance of getting the best shot, so get one that fits the way you think and work, and that gives you the control you want over the things that matter to you.

If the first thing an average person notices in your shots is the noise in the shadows, you need to work a lot harder on making your photos interesting. It's not what's behind the shutter that matters most, it's who's behind the viewfinder. Magic Lantern adds some amazing features, especially for video, and similar projects like Nikon Hacker and PTool are nowhere near as sophisticated at this stage. Entry-level Nikon bodies don't support high-speed sync. If you want a camera now, get one! The camera of tomorrow can't take the photos of today.

It might take a significant chunk of a year after a new model is announced for price and firmware to stabilise, and it will take a while for software, such as Adobe Camera Raw, to support new models. The appeal of your photos will depend much more on your ability than anything to do with the camera.

Bodies come and go, the real investment is the lenses. The camera you want will get cheaper until they stop making it, meanwhile new and more desirable models will come out and go through the same cycle. You can wait forever for the perfect deal. Camera bodies are just tools, they wear out, get stolen, dunked, broken Just get the best one you can afford and use it. You can save money by shopping for special deals, but it's guaranteed that the best deal you can find today will be beaten tomorrow so stop looking when you've made the payment.

For a beginner, it doesn't really matter which camera you use — a 7D won't give you better images than a D, or even a good point-and-shoot. The camera starts to matter when you are trying to do something genuinely challenging, like birds in flight, so wait until you know what you want to do and that it really is your current camera rather than your artistic and technical skills , that is holding you back.

Better cameras don't take better photos, they let the photographer take better photos, but for the photographer to take better photos they have to become a better photographer. Upgrade the photographer before you upgrade the gear. The main reason for having a swivelling monitor is that it's great for Live View, so the question really is, will I make significant use of Live View?

Don't buy a DSLR assuming that you will hold it at arm's length like a point and shoot camera, 'cos that sucks and you'll hate it. Live View is great on a tripod, and any time it's inconvenient or impossible to look through the viewfinder e. If you know you will only ever shoot birds in flight, then sure, you don't need it, but if you're open to the possibilities, a swivelling monitor is a real asset. Canon have been making swivelling monitors since the G1 released in — how often do you hear of them breaking?

If you're worried about the risk of damage, leave the monitor against the body just like a conventional DSLR, and flip it out only when it's completely safe. If you're really worried, you have a big advantage over a conventional DSLR — you can keep the monitor facing in against the body and protect the screen from knocks and scratches. It's only a problem if you worry about it. They are also available from online vendors like uscamera. Make sure you get the appropriate double-sided adhesive tape as well.

The touch screens on recent Rebels work fine with the protector film intended for iPhones, even though Canon don't recommend it. The overwhelming majority of owners tell a story like this, "I thought the touch screen would be a gimmick and I wouldn't use it, but now I use it all the time and wouldn't buy another camera with it. It's brilliant, you'll love it! If you don't like it you can leave it switched off and use the buttons like any other camera, so there's no penalty in having it and no reason to avoid a camera that has it.

If you think you will want to use remote flashes indoors, it's worth considering. See How can I use my external flash off the camera? Many of us do and have no problems. Just do your buying with the same caution you would any other electronic item, for instance, buy from a reputable retailer with overwhelmingly positive feedback about the product.

It doesn't permanently alter anything in your camera. They said no, but damage caused by using something like Magic Lantern, like "bricking" making the camera unusable , would not be repaired under warranty. The problem is cold can significantly reduce battery performance, so if you plan to shoot in sub-zero conditions take spare batteries and keep them warm in a pocket close to your body. Avoid bringing a cold camera into a warm moist environment not just sub-zero to room temperature, also from air conditioning to tropical heat and humidity.

Condensation might penetrate into the body and cause damage. Leave your camera in a camera bag, or put it into a ziplock bag, then allow it to warm up to the ambient temperature before you take it out. Start at the beginning of the Instruction Manual, try everything it tells you, until you get to the end.

If everything seems to work you have no reason to worry. If something doesn't work, it's more likely that you have misunderstood the instructions, so ask a question in the forum. Describe everything you did which shooting, metering, and AF modes; which AF points; what light levels; what kind of subjects; what buttons you pressed, when, and why Try a blower like the popular Giottos Rocket-air.

The focussing screen is removable see Focusing Screen Installation Guides , but if you're not confident working with extremely delicate stuff in tight spaces, get a professional to do it. If you do remove the focussing screen, handle it by the edges and don't touch it with anything harder than air. Unless it's in self-timer mode you checked that, right? If the viewfinder goes black, press the shutter button again — if it takes a photo you are in mirror lockup mode. Disable that in the custom functions and you'll be back to normal.

If the lens is set to AF autofocus and the AF mode is set to One-Shot, you can't take a shot until focus is confirmed you get a beep and a green light in the viewfinder. So try with those settings on a well-lit contrasty target a few metres away. If the lens is set to AF and the AF mode is set to AI Servo, it should take a shot, but there might be a delay while the lens gets into focus.

Shutter buttons can get clogged up. Many have been able to fix that by pouring isopropyl alcohol into the battery compartment to flush the shutter button mechanism. Google "fix shutter button with isopropyl alcohol" for lots of instructions. Check your setting for the "C. If you use a memory card which has files on it, the sequential number will pick up from what's on the card.

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If you don't want that to happen always clear all the files from your cards, especially if your cards get used in more than one camera. That happens when you switch to the Adobe RGB colour space. See Which colour space should I use? Reverting all options and custom functions to their default values can also help use the Clear settings menu option.

Another thing that can work is to clean the electrical contacts in the lens mount. It's often advised to do that with a pencil eraser, though others claim that will damage the contacts and recommend isopropyl alcohol instead. If you do use an eraser, make sure you don't get any rubber crumbs inside your camera or in the back of your lenses! Try another lens if you can. You're tilting the camera to the right when you press down on the shutter button.

Concentrate on pressing the shutter button with just your finger while holding everything else rock steady. To get the best out of a DSLR you need to tune its settings to suit your needs, or work on the images on a computer to get them looking the way you want and the best way to do that is to shoot raw. If you're seeing vague dark spots in the same places in your photos especially when you shoot with tight apertures , you have dust on your sensor.

Don't panic, it happens to everyone, even people who never change lenses. You can clean the sensor yourself, it's not difficult or dangerous, but if you're not confident working in confined spaces with delicate things, get someone who knows what they are doing to do it. Here are some instructions —. You can minimise dust accumulation on your sensor by regularly using your camera's built-in sensor cleaning function, and blowing the sensor with a blower like the Giottos Rocket-air. Sometimes an image sensor can end up with a "hot pixel", which appears as a tiny bright spot in the same place on every image.

Many people have cleared hot pixels by leaving the camera in manual cleaning mode for a minute check the Manual Sensor Cleaning section in your camera's instruction manual. Some say take the lens off and fit a body cap and have the camera pointing down, and others say warm up the sensor by leaving the camera in Live View for a few minutes first, but it's not clear that any of these things are necessary.

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If it doesn't work without them, try it with and see if it makes a difference. The best shots with the best lenses look soft, noisy, and mushy when viewed like that. The default level of sharpening your camera applies is quite modest you can change this in the Picture Style settings , and resizing an image reduces sharpness so you need to sharpen after resizing. Focus accuracy, motion blur, and aperture all affect image sharpness, so you have to control those factors to get valid data.

If most of them are obviously not sharp when viewed fullscreen, post a typical one to the forum and we'll give you some opinions. If you're using IS, give it a moment to settle before you fire the shutter. Like, half-press, focus confirmed, say "one thousand" in your head, then full-press. Most consumer grade lenses give their best sharpness a couple of steps down from their widest setting, e. Long focal length Canon EF L lenses e. Moderate diffraction is relatively easy to fix with good sharpening.

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You get the best image quality by capturing as much light as possible on the sensor, so the optimal aperture is the widest one that gives the required DOF and sharpness. If you require more DOF than your lens can deliver sharply, try focus stacking. What matters to photography is shutter duration , the time during which the sensor is exposed to the scene.

Camera manufacturers talk about shutter speed rather than duration, because it means they can show whole numbers rather than fractions on the user interfaces, e. The shorter the shutter duration the more likely you are to avoid blur due to motion of the subject or the camera. Camera motion blur increases with focal length. Steady hands? Can you press the shutter button without jerking the camera? Try it for yourself and find out how slow you can go and still get nine out of ten sharp shots.

Image stabilisation IS should give two to four steps advantage, e. Also try "poor man's image stabilisation" when your shutter duration is marginal — shoot bursts in continuous shooting mode and keep the sharpest of the shots, which may be significantly better than the average single shot. Subject motion obviously depends on the subject. Try a range of durations and see what works, including longer to show some blur, e. You get the best image quality by capturing as much light as possible on the sensor, so the optimal shutter duration is the longest one that gives the required sharpness or blur.

If the scene is too bright for the optimal aperture and shutter duration at the lowest ISO, you'll have to compromise something, or use a filter to reduce the light entering the camera see Which filters do I need? The Basic Zone modes don't let you take control of critical things, like autofocus, metering, and flash, so they're useless for anything serious. Once you press the shutter button, it only matters what values are used for the aperture, shutter duration, and ISO. It doesn't matter how those values were determined, so use the shooting mode that helps you the most to get the shot.

Aperture-Priority Av is a good default for most situations, since it gives you direct control over the depth of field DOF. You just need to use the exposure compensation controls to alter the choice the camera makes for the shutter duration. Use Shutter-Priority Tv if you want direct independent control of the shutter duration for some reason. The exposure compensation controls alter the aperture in that case unless you're using Auto-ISO, in which case the camera follows it's own rules about what changes when.

If you need to hold a set of metering values for longer than you want to hold down the AEL button, or if you need to go further from the values that the meter suggests than the exposure compensation controls allow, use Manual M mode. M should be your default mode for flash photography see I can't get flash to do what I want Program AE P is kinda like full auto "green box" mode, except that you can alter the balance between aperture and shutter duration, compensate the metering, select individual autofocus points, and deploy the flash when you want.

P mode tries to help by making some decisions for you, but that will ultimately restrict what you can do with it, and then you're better off using M, Av, or Tv. Having said all that, don't get hung up on the technicalities. A great photo makes you go "wow! Great photography is about depth of feeling, not depth of field. Dedicate your efforts to the magic, not the machinery. Metering is about capturing the best quality data. That basically means maximising the luminous exposure aperture x shutter duration , while retaining detail that matters in the brightest and darkest parts of the scene. Ideally, you choose the widest aperture that will give you the depth of field DOF you want, the longest shutter duration that will not cause unwanted blur due to camera or subject movement, and the ISO that best captures the range of tones in the scene.

The meter in your camera doesn't know whether you are shooting a white cat in snow or a black cat on coal, it just chooses settings to make both of those scenes average to a uniform mid-grey, based on the amount of light it sees through the lens. It's up to you to decide what to do with that information. The difference between analogue film and digital metering is that for analogue you only have the meter and your experience to help you decide what to do, whereas a digital camera gives you immediate feedback on the quality of data via the histogram and highlight alerts.

Try all the metering modes and get to know what kind of situations they suit. Evaluative mode is biased towards the active autofocus point, so it can give variable results if you focus and recompose. It doesn't really matter which metering mode you use to get a starting point. Use the histogram and highlight alerts for a test image or in Live View , to see which way you have to compensate the image brightness to avoid blowing the highlights.

Most people who shoot this way favour centre-weighted average metering for general purposes, and may use partial or spot to limit the part of the scene the meter uses, for instance, to meter off the face of an actor on stage. The bottom line is, you can't fix metering problems by using a different metering mode, you fix them by compensating the metering values to move the histogram curve to the left or right.

Try these camera simulators to see what you can change in each shooting mode aperture-priority, shutter-priority, and manual , and how the metering factors aperture, shutter duration, ISO, and compensation influence the image you get:. The word is correctly used to mean the amount of light reaching the sensor scene luminance x aperture x shutter duration. Or when the scene luminance is fixed, it means the metering values that determine the exposure aperture x shutter duration. Have a play with the simulator at Exposure Compensation: Your new best friend. Digital Photography Myths.

When shooting film, the only thing you could change with the camera to alter the brightness of the image was the aperture and shutter duration, hence " exposure compensation" was apt. When shooting digital we can alter the ISO setting from shot to shot, so a much better term for altering image brightness is "metering compensation", since we can alter the image brightness via the in-camera processing ISO as well as the exposure aperture x shutter duration.

In full manual M mode, you have complete control over all metering values, so the meter display just shows you how far your settings deviate from what the meter would choose. You can't compensate the metering in Basic Zone modes, which is a good reason to avoid those modes. Set up your camera on a tripod with a static scene in unchanging light.

That's the distribution of dark tones to the left and bright tones to the right in your image, according to what the meter would choose. See how far you have to go to get a big spike on the right, which shows that highlights are "blown out". See how far you have to go to get a big spike on the left, which shows that shadows are "blocked". The meter always shows the deviation you have chosen. ETTR means setting your metering values so that the histogram curve is to the right hand side of the graph rather than the left, without important highlights "going over the edge" and losing detail.

The idea is to maximise the signal-to-noise ratio in the data you capture, but only when the important highlights are safe. There are two forms of ETTR. This often results in the capture of less light, which generally means more noise. Doing that means you capture as much light as possible, then optimally process the signal from the image sensor. The meter is never fooled or tricked by anything. It always gives you the right exposure aperture x shutter duration and processing ISO values for a scene which reflects a specific percentage of the incident light.

The problem is, many scenes don't reflect that percentage, or they have a distribution of highlights and shadows that are not well served by a simplifying assumption. Try metering a scene in spot metering mode in Av. You'll see that the shutter duration varies widely depending on what the spot can see. Bright parts of the scene might show shutter durations 2 to 4 steps faster than what's required for those areas to look right in the image, e.

Similarly, dark parts of the scene might show shutter durations much slower than what's required for those areas to show as dark in the image, e. The other metering modes just take various parts of the scene into account in more elaborate ways, but they are all fundamentally doing the same thing. So, all the meter can do is give you a guess of how much light is hitting the scene, based on how much light it sees, and it's up to you to interpret that information to get the image you want, e.

In manual M mode, you have absolute control of all the values with an indication of how far the result is from what the meter would do. Don't be a fool and expect the camera to make those decisions for you. Sure, if it helps you get the shot you want. Many people like to use it with Manual M mode, but be aware that you can't compensate the metering in M with Auto ISO, so you are stuck with the values the meter wants.


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You can turn an EOS-compatible lens into a manual aperture lens by setting the aperture you want, and holding down the DOF preview button while you unlock the lens and rotate it far enough to show "00" for the aperture. Don't forget to rotate your lens back into the locked position when you're done! Not really… the sensitivity to light of the photosites on the sensor is fixed by their physical design. The ISO determines how the signal from the sensor is mapped to image brightness values.

Not really… the biggest factor with noise is how much light you capture aperture x shutter duration , and if you capture less light you have to amplify the signal from the sensor more to achieve the same image brightness. Raising the ISO does that, which makes the noise more visible. Technically, yes, raising the ISO by one step reduces the dynamic range that can be captured in the raw data by about one step.

So you can use a lower ISO than the meter wants and push the brightness later on the computer. That gives you more options for developing highlights, but with a Canon EOS the best image quality comes from setting an appropriate ISO in the camera that doesn't blow important highlights. A noisy sharp shot beats a clean blurry shot, since you can reduce noise in post-processing but you can't fix significant blur. For the best results, maximise the exposure aperture x shutter duration then set the ISO for the image brightness you want.

HTP basically compensates the metering by -1 step with a different mapping of input tones to output tones. Unless you know for sure that you need something different e. The little rubber thing on the strap that came with your camera is there to prevent light entering the viewfinder during metering when you don't have the camera to your eye.

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You don't need it during the exposure, since the mirror completely blocks that light path when it is flipped up. Raw is like exposed film, whereas JPEG is like a developed transparency slide. With raw you can drastically change many important image parameters any time you want, such as white balance and tonal range. You can't do that as easily with JPEGs, since the effects of things like color space, picture style, contrast, sharpness, saturation, filter effect, High ISO speed noise reduction, and Auto Lighting Optimizer are "baked-in".

See Why use your camera's raw format? The hard part about raw is learning how to use a raw converter see Which software should I use? You could start with Canon's own tutorials. On the other hand if you just take snaps, don't worry about raw. You need to master getting the image to look the way you want with the camera, via the white balance settings, picture styles, and exposure compensation controls.


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It's not an acronym or file extension, it's an adjective, so "raw" is grammatically correct, but "RAW" makes it look more impressive "ROAR! Whenever you take a shot, the signals from the photosites in the image sensor are converted to digital raw data, a JPEG image is cooked from that, and the JPEG image is displayed on the camera's monitor.

If you view the shot on the camera sometime later, it's always the JPEG image you see. An EF lens has a raised red dot on the barrel near the mount, which aligns with a sunken red dot on the lens mount on the camera body. An EF-S lens has a raised white square on the barrel, and it can be mounted on a camera which has a sunken white square near the red dot on its mount. Current lenses for Canon 1. Top Twenty EOS compatible lenses. Canon U. Lens Selection. Yes, but the only safe and reliable way to do it is to use an auto extension tube between the camera and the lens.

That shifts the focus range closer to the camera, so you will only be able to focus on close things. You can replace the mount on the lens e. EdMika , use a very short mount adapter with some long lenses, or use a generic mount adapter with optical elements like a teleconverter to allow focus at infinity. Those optical adapters are either rare and expensive, or cheap and nasty. It's generally not worth trying to use a non-EOS-compatible lens unless it has some special feature that you can't get with a compatible lens.

For instance, the focus rings on a manual focus lenses have long smooth motion compared to an autofocus lens, which makes them much nicer to use for that. You now have a manual focus fixed aperture lens insecurely attached to your camera. Don't forget to turn your lens back to the locked position when you're finished playing with it! That will reset the aperture to wide open.

The Bottom Line

The shorter the focal length the wider the view of the scene you get, so 10mm is "wider" than 18mm, which is "wider" than 35mm If the focal length of a lens is significantly shorter than the "normal" focal length for the body it's mounted on, it will be called a "short" lens for that format, and it gives a "wide-angle" view. For instance, normal for a Rebel would be something like 27mm, so an 18mm lens is short wide and a 50mm lens is "long" narrow , but on a full-frame camera 50mm is normal, and on a medium format camera it is short.

Most people use "telephoto" to mean long focal lengths e. For the forum members to make suggestions we need to know what you want to do, how what you have already doesn't fulfil that purpose, and how much you can spend. For a longer reach, the EF-S mm is fantastic value and a great performer for the price. Just give the image stabilisation IS a moment to stabilise before you fire a shot.

The STM version is even better. Some bargain-basement kits come with a non-IS version of the , and an EF There are really only cosmetic differences between the original versions of those two and the "mark II" versions. It's good value and widely available as a kit with the latest Rebels. A set of two or three lenses like that goes very well with a Rebel body, and will allow you to explore a lot of photography for very little cost. Do yourself a favour and spend at least six months or a year with a few low cost lenses before you start thinking about spending big money.

Not without knowing what you want to do and how much you want to spend.

But here's a list of lenses that are often recommended by forum members for APS-C cameras. It's not The Ultimate List of Lenses You Must Get, it's just some of the most popular favourites, to give you some ideas to get started in your research. If you like the sound of a lens on this list, also check out equivalent models from third-party manufacturers like Sigma, Tamron, and Tokina.

Good lenses hold their value very well and are easy to sell when you don't need them any more, so choose lenses on the basis of what will give you the best results today rather than on the basis of what you might want in the future. Lenses with wide focal length ranges e. Inevitably you will have to clean your sensor, even if you never swap lenses, so don't restrict yourself to one lens for that reason. No, a 50mm lens is always a 50mm lens, whatever you do with it. Also see Why don't I get the same view with two lenses of the same focal length? To get the same framing of a scene from the same point of view using a full-frame body as you get with a 50mm lens on a crop body, you need an 80mm lens 1.

If you're only using a crop body, just learn what each focal length does on your camera and don't worry about equivalence. Third generation IS lenses are generally those that claim four steps of stabilisation, which includes most EF-S lenses. Those with short focal lengths generally don't require the user to switch the IS off.

One known exception is the EF-S II, which will drift when used at wide angles for exposures longer than one minute. IS can cause blur with longer focal length lenses. The more stable the mounting and the longer the exposure the more likely you are to get IS blur. On the other hand, if there is any camera movement or vibration IS is likely to help e.

The best thing to do is test your lens under the conditions you will be shooting, and see if there's any difference. Always make sure you allow a second for the IS to stabilize before you fire a shot. If the image in the viewfinder or Live View is more stable without IS, the photo will probably be sharper that way as well. Leaving it on will flatten your battery more quickly, but it does stabilise the image in the viewfinder, which makes focussing and framing much easier. Check out Lenses: Image Stabilisation.

Here's a comprehensive set of rules for the Nikon Vibration Reduction system which shows how hard it is to give a simple answer to such a complex question — All About VR. If in doubt, just test it! When Canon show "F4. Put your camera in Av mode, hold down the DOF Preview button, and look into the front of the lens while you change the aperture value with the main dial — you'll see the size of the entrance pupil changing.

No, perspective depends only on the camera's spatial relationship with the elements of the scene, IOW, where you are. Focal length only changes the angle of view, IOW, how much you can see from where you are. See Is it better to learn composition with a fixed focal length lens? Cancel anytime before your trial ends and you won't be charged. There's no complicated contract, no cancellation fees, and no commitment.

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