Get a detailed look inside SharePoint and master the intricacies of developing intranets, extranets, and Web-based applications. Guided by an author team with in-depth knowledge of SharePoint architecture, you'll gain task-oriented guidance and extensive code samples to help you build robust business solutions. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. The establishment of the 'city of theatre'; 2. Censorship; 3. The 'old' Burgtheater; 4. Commercial theatres in 'Old Vienna'; 5.
Opera and operetta; 6. The late nineteenth century: new foundations; 7. Modernism at the end of the monarchy; 8. Falk, Choice. Show More Show Less. The Weisses have spent a lovely summer by the sea, in the midst of unspoiled nature, and he has completed a set of five six-voice madrigals on Goethe texts and a string quartet.
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Diary entry by Schenker for 9 May Diary entry by Schenker for 30 September Collage: images of Schenker. You are here: Profiles Person Adolf Weisse. This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! This is the first general history in English of the theatre in Vienna, the one German-speaking city which in the late ei This is the first general history in English of the theatre in Vienna, the one German-speaking city which in the late eighteenth century and for most of the nineteenth sustained a theatrical life comparable to that of Paris or London.
The book covers this theatrical culture from the beginnings of modern theatre in to the present day, relating it to social, political and intellectual history and charting how Viennese theatre has reflected political and social change from the Josephinian reforms to Metternich, the rise of anti-Semitism and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the Anschluss and the modern republic.
It focuses primarily on the most important and productive theatres: the Burgtheater of the nineteenth and early twentieth century and the commercial theatres that housed Viennese dialect comedy and operetta. Particular emphasis is placed on the dramatists and composers from whom the lasting importance of the theatres chiefly derives, and on the ideological pressures reflected in the repertory, in censorship to which one chapter is devoted and in press reception.
The book draws on original documents including diaries, memoirs and reviews, and is fully accessible to general readers as well as specialists. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published This digitally printed first paperback version A catalogue recordfor this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Yates, W.
ISBN 0 4 hardback 1. Theatre - Austria - Vienna - History. V5Y38 '. The two theatres in the centre 2. Enlightenment reform 3. The first commercial theatres i i 8 15 2 Censorship 25 1. Censorship until 2. Censorship after the Revolution 3 The 'old5 Burgtheater 25 42 49 1.
From Palffy to Schreyvogel 2. The Laube era 3. The last years in the 'old' Burgtheater 4 Commercial theatres in 'Old Vienna' 1. Three 'popular theatres' 2.
- born Lugoj, Rumania, April 4, 1855; died Vienna, July 17, 1933.
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Karl Carl 3. The cultural climate and working environment 4. The debate about 'popular drama' 5. Pokorny, Treumann, and the decline of dialect comedy 5 Opera and operetta 49 63 76 86 86 99 in 1. Opera and ballet in the Biedermeier period 2. The rise of operetta 6 The late nineteenth century: new foundations 1. The Wiener Stadttheater 2. Nationalist sentiment: the Deutsches Volkstheater and the Raimundtheater 3. The Kaiserjubilaums-Stadttheater ix x 7 List of contents Modernism at the end of the monarchy 1.
Modern drama 2. Opera and operetta 8 1. Economic depression 2. The art of the twenties 3. Postwar rebuilding 2. Hof-Burgtheaters, Vienna Photograph by C. Geschichte der Wiener Revolution, 2 vols, Vienna ,11, Reschauer and M. Smets, Das Jahr ,11, 7 New Burgtheater showing sculptures on facade photograph, Drawing by Eduard Gurk, published by Tranquillo Mollo.
Friedrich Kaiser proclaiming the new constitution, 15 March illustration by Vinzenz Katzler from H. Smets, Dasjahr ,1, Theater nachst dem Karntnertor, interior drawing by Eduard Gurk, ; published by Tranquillo Mollo. Josefine Gallmeyer and Marie Geistinger postcard, early twentieth century.
Fiirst-Theater lithograph from J. Varrone and L. Petrovits, 50 Ansichten aus Wien und Umgebung, Rorrch and J. Erinnerungen und Betrachtungen, Vienna and Leipzig Illustrierter Fremdenfuhrer durch Wien und Umgebung, 20th edn, ed. The evolution of the theatre there illustrates basic problems of theatre history as a discipline: the relation of the theatre to social change reflected in changes in the public and its expectations , to political pressure reflected most directly in censorship and to the cultural climate manifested most explicitly in press reviews.
Vienna also provides a notable contrast to the English theatre: in the survival of the repertory system, in the practice of subscription abonnement , in the level of state subsidy - all symptomatic of a culture in which the theatre and theatre-going have a central place in public and political consciousness.
The importance of Vienna in the history of drama, opera, and operetta is such that anyone working on subjects connected either with international theatre history or with Germanspeaking drama needs information on the Viennese theatre; yet there is no general history of it in English to complement monographs on the main dramatists Grillparzer, Raimund, Nestroy, Anzengruber, Schnitzler, Hofmannsthal and composers Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Johann Strauss, Richard Strauss.
When the most recent and fullest scholarly history of the Viennese theatre in German, Franz Hadamowsky's Wien.
Theatergeschichte, appeared in , I had the privilege of reviewing it in the Modern Language Review Vol. In a sense, this present book is an attempt to redress the balance, albeit with a different time-scale, and for English-speaking readers. The history either of a single theatre or of the theatrical life of a whole city or nation is part of a wider cultural history; what I am attempting is to provide an account of the theatrical culture of Vienna since the late eighteenth century, relating it to the social, political, and intellectual history of the city, and keeping international comparisons in mind throughout.
It is an attempt to chart how Viennese theatre has reflected the changing pattern of political and social life, and how those pressures have been played out in the politics of the theatre itself. The account treats both court later state theatres and commercial theatres and centres mainly on organisation, repertoire, and reception — that is, on the politics of the theatre, with developments in the theatre related to the political and social background.
The subjects it covers include the building of theatres, their situation in an expanding city, and organizational change within them; the contrast and interrelation of court or state theatres and commercial theatres; theatre repertoires as reflections of developing tastes, with particular emphasis on the dramatists and composers on which the lasting importance of the theatres concerned rests; and ideological pressures reflected in the repertory and in reception.
I am aware that in taking as my starting-point I am cutting out some very interesting earlier material. The history of court entertainments, of strolling players, the building of the first permanent theatres in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the fashions for Italian opera and French drama would properly form the material for a companion volume.
The story is a rich one, both colourful and important. There is no comprehensive factual reference book available on the Viennese theatres comparable to Nicole Wild's Dictionnaire des theatres parisiens au XIX6 siecle. I have therefore tried to make the account as factually informative as possible, and I hope Preface xvii it will be useful in placing the major names in context; but my aim is not to provide a list of names and dates. It is impossible in the space available to cover every theatre, and I make no apology for the fact that most space is given to the most important theatres and the most productive periods: to the history of the Burgtheater in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, and to the commercial theatres that were the homes of Viennese dialect comedy and operetta.
Histories of Viennese theatre frequently concentrate largely on actors; writing for non-German-speaking readers, who may be expected to know many of the principal works performed but to be less concerned with individual performers, I have tried to avoid the danger of providing lists of performers' names any Viennese reader will find glaring omissions and to mention only the most important figures, concentrating more on repertory and management. While trying to present the story in a readable form, I have drawn as far as possible on authentic documents including diaries, memoirs, and reviews written by the participants.
In using works of scholarship I have drawn particularly on those that themselves go back directly to original documents. Particularly important in this respect among older material are Karl Glossy's transcriptions of material on censorship, and among modern work a series of publications by Franz Hadamowsky, Franz Dirnberger, and above all by Johann Hiittner, whose searching examinations of the practical commercial problems of the nineteenth-century theatre have transformed our understanding of its workings.
Where both Hadamowsky's history and also the more popular account by Verena Keil-Budischowsky, Die Theater Wiens , treat the material theatre by theatre, I have organized the material mainly by periods and genres, in an attempt to afford a broader historical perspective. Because I hope the story is of wide concern to those interested in the history of European theatre and in the history of drama and opera, as well as to those interested mainly in Vienna or in German and Austrian literature, quotations are translated into English with the German occasionally given also where the phrasing is distinctive or problematic.
Some longer passages in German which are of documentary value and are not widely accessible are reproduced in Appendix 1. For matters of fact, such as dates of productions and appointments, which are available both in contemporary newspapers and in reference works, individual references are not given. The works on which I have drawn are listed in the Bibliography, together with full details of works referred to in abbreviated form in the endnotes. There is such an enormous wealth of material, both printed and unprinted, on Viennese theatre that a comprehensive bibliography of the field would have constituted a book by itself; but though the Bibliography to the present study pp.
Finally, a note on terminology: the word 'director' has become ambiguous in English, meaning both the theatre manager German Theaterdirektof and the 'stage director5 German Regisseur , for which the word 'producer' used to be used until the terminology was confused under the influence of the film industry. For the sake of economy and clarity, I have used 'producer' in the sense of 'stage director' Regisseur throughout, and reserved 'director' for the director of a theatre.
I have also restricted the word 'premiere', when used without explanatory qualification, to refer only to the world premiere of a new work, as opposed to the first night of a new production. Acknowledgements It is a pleasure to acknowledge my gratitude for the help I have received from colleagues and friends.
I am deeply indebted to two of them in particular.
Professor Johann Huttner Vienna gave me wise advice at an early stage and has also provided numerous further pieces of information; my bibliography and notes also give at least some indication of the reliance I have placed on his published work, especially on the nineteenth-century theatre. Professor Peter Branscombe St Andrews has also given me the benefit of his advice from the start and has unfailingly responded to a series of requests for information; furthermore he was kind enough to read through a late draft of the chapters on the eighteenth century and on opera and operetta, and I owe him a warm debt of thanks for generously making available material from his private collection for use in the illustrations.
I must also express my gratitude to the British Academy for a Research Grant which enabled me to work in Vienna in ; to the University of Exeter for two terms' study leave in ; and to my colleagues in the Department of German who made that leave possible by unselfishly shouldering a lot of extra work at a difficult time.
Wolber on Yates., 'Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 1776-1995'
Finally I would like to acknowledge my debt to various libraries and archives, both for the material I have been able to consult and for the helpfulness of their staff: to the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna, in particular the Theatre Collection Theatersammlung , now housed in the Osterreichisches Theatermuseum; the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek; the Niederosterreichisches Landesarchiv; the Institute of Germanic Studies, London; and Exeter University Library, to which I am also particularly grateful for making available material reproduced from the Schnitzler Archive.
I am also indebted to all those at the Cambridge University press who have helped to bring the project to completion, in particular to Dr Katharina Brett, who has overseen it from the start, and to Dr Christine F. Salazar for her searching reading of the typescript. One decree elevated one of the two court theatres to the status of a 'National Theatre3; the other, still more important, broke the monopoly hitherto enjoyed by the court theatres by establishing a new 'liberty for theatre' Spektakelfreiheit or Schauspielfreiheit. This permitted the building of new play-houses outside the walled city centre and so paved the way for the flowering of Viennese theatre in the early nineteenth century.
Both measures had their rationale in the cultural politics of the Enlightenment. As a consequence partly of the Thirty Years War, partly of the fragmentation of the political map, the history of the stage in the German-speaking countries lagged behind that in France and England. Heinrich Laube, the most distinguished director of the Burgtheater in the second half of the nineteenth century, traced the idea of an 'educated' German theatre back to about , when Gottsched's reforms enjoyed the support of Caroline Neuber's company in Leipzig.
Until then, most theatrical entertainments throughout German-speaking Europe took place either in court theatres or on the often temporary stages where itinerant troupes performed. The court theatres were often manned by Italian or French companies, and though the itinerant troupes performed in German, many of 2 The establishment of the 'city of theatre' the works they acted were translated and adapted from other languages.
The theatrical life of Vienna had gone its own way since the Counter-Reformation, and in particular it had been spared the reforms that had taken place in Protestant Germany. Nevertheless, both court and popular traditions were strongly represented there. It had been one of the great European centres of court entertainments since the age of the Baroque. These had mainly been of Italian origin, with French comedy added in the eighteenth century. When Hofmannsthal has the Marschallin in the first act of Der Rosenkavalier receive an Italian tenor at her levee, that is an authentic reflection of the cultural and especially operatic flavour of mid-eighteenthcentury taste.
The most famous of all the productions for festive occasions at court was Cesti's II porno d'oro , one of the most lavish examples of Baroque opera in Europe, which was organized as part of the festivities celebrating the marriage in of Leopold I to Margarita Teresia, the younger daughter of Philip IV of Spain. The subject, the mythological Judgement of Paris, was tailored to the occasion: the Prologue ended with a celebration of Leopold as a victorious warrior, with the stage surmounted by La Gloria Austriaca borne by Pegasus; the conclusion of the opera twisted the traditional story to allow Jupiter to bestow the prize on the new Empress.
In general, however, comic interludes were an integral part of operatic entertainment at court, and survived until about They centred on vulgar comic servants who bore Italian names but were descended from the comic figures of the German stage the drama of the so-called Englische Komodianten of the seventeenth century rather than from the commedia deWarte.
As late as Christian Gottlob Klemm, a playwright in Vienna, would stress how much of an advantage it was for the Viennese theatre that its comic figures were variants of an indigenous type belonging to the German-language theatre and not imported from Italian or French tradition. Haifa century later The establishment of the 'city of theatre3 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu reported another operatic production in the Baroque tradition.
The work was Johann Joseph Fux's Angela Vincitrice di Alcina, which she attended in in the gardens of the Favorita, the summer palace of Emperor Karl VI on the site of what is now the Theresianum, in the fourth district of the city. The decor was by the celebrated Italian stage-designer Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena, and the report Lady Mary gave in one of her letters to Pope stresses the expensiveness and ingenuity of the scenic effects and the opulence of the costumes: Nothing of that kind ever was more magnificent; and I can easily believe what I am told, that the decorations and habits cost the emperor thirty thousand pounds sterling.
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The stage was built over a very large canal, and, at the beginning of the second act, divided into two parts, discovering the water, on which there immediately came, from different parts, twofleetsof little gilded vessels, that gave the representation of a naval fight. It is not easy to imagine the beauty of this scene, which I took particular notice of. But all the rest were perfectly fine in their kind. The story of the opera is the Enchantments of Alcina, which gives opportunity for a great variety of machines, and changes of the scene, which are performed with a surprising swiftness.
The theatre is so large, that it is hard to carry the eye to the end of it; and the habits in the utmost magnificence, to the number of one hundred and eight. No house could hold such large decorations.. Even in the commercial theatres of the early nineteenth century, which catered for a much humbler public, the enterprising director of the Theater an der Wien, Karl Carl, mounted a gala evening in March to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the Emperor's accession, and followed it up the following year with a 'carnival' evening, for which the theatre was specially decorated and brilliantly illuminated with Argand lamps the paraffin lamps that were the normal form of theatre lighting until they were gradually superseded by gaslight in the mid nineteenth century.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu also visited a performance by the distant antecedents of Carl's company, the troupe led by Joseph Anton Stranitzky. This company had begun as one of many bands of strolling players which had visited Vienna regularly from the mid seventeenth century onwards.
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They enjoyed the facility of a permanent theatre, probably from the end of This was the Theater nachst dem Karntnertor Karntnertortheater for short , which had been built by the city of Vienna close by the city wall and had 3 4 The establishment of the 'city of theatre3 opened on 30 November , originally occupied by Italian players.
Stranitzky's company performed blood-and-thunder dramas interspersed with short songs and interludes of broad comedy. These Haupt- und Staatsaktionen followed what by international standards was a primitive formula, and the scripts left room for comic extemporization. From those that survive probably about a quarter of Stranitzky's repertoire we know that the subjects included popular German material e.
Stranitzky simplified the libretto texts and reduced the arias, though music, including ballet, remained an important element; indeed the 'good music' of his troupe was one of the factors advanced in by the Lower Austrian government in favour of according him the lease of the theatre. The play that Lady Mary Wortley Montagu visited in was Amphitruo, which 'began', so she told Pope, 'with Jupiter's falling in love out of a peep-hole in the clouds, and ended with the birth of Hercules' but turned on the comic use made of Jupiter's metamorphosis.
Her letter protests her shock at the vulgarity of the production 'I could not easily pardon the liberty the poet has taken of larding his play not only with indecent expressions, but such gross words as I don't think our mob would suffer from a mountebank' ; but in view of the language barrier this may be taken with a pinch of salt. What her letter does not leave any doubt about is the entertainment value of the performance: They have but one playhouse, where I had the curiosity to go to a German comedy, and was very glad it happened to be the story of Amphitrion, that subject having been already handled by a Latin, French, and English poet, I was curious to see what an Austrian author would make of it The way is, to take a box, which holds four, for yourself and company.
Thefixedprice is a gold ducat. I thought the house very low and dark; but I confess, the comedy admirably recompensed that defect. I never laughed so much in my life. For at least one of the thirteen Bernardon plays that have survived, Der neue Krumme Teufel,1 it is known that the music was composed by Haydn. Another play, Bernardon der dreifiigjahrige ABC-Schutz the text of which is lost , is an example of how such material lived on in the dialect theatre: adapted by later playwrights, first Karl Friedrich Hensler and then Friedrich Hopp, for a different comic figure, under the title Thaddddl der dreiftigjahrige ABC-Schutz, it was still playing in the Theater in der Leopoldstadt, with Nestroy in the main role, in the s.
Another work, the parody Bernardon die Getreue Prinzefiin Pumphia, published with a preface stressing its theatrical character and praising the skill of Prehauser's company see document 1, p. For whereas in Germany Harlequin as the representative of extemporized comedy was ceremonially 'banished5 from the stage in , in Vienna extemporization survived in the Karntnertortheater until the s, and far from dying out, the popular comedy associated with Hanswurst was able to move its base after to the new theatres built in the districts outside the walls.
This whole tradition of vernacular entertainment was to become the most distinctive element of the theatrical culture of Vienna. The Karntnertortheater was indeed long known as the 'German theatre' 'deutsches Theater5 , by contrast with the court theatre attached to the imperial palace Hofburgtheater , where in the mid eighteenth century the programme consisted of Italian opera and French drama.
This theatre is generally referred to for short as the Burgtheater, and that is the term I shall use. Its function as a court theatre was to provide entertainment for what, by contrast with the states in Protestant Germany, was a multinational court; hence the longestablished dominance of Italian opera in the repertory. There had been a succession of theatres in the complex of the imperial palace since the mid seventeenth century. After one new theatre had burnt down in - the first of many fires that would feature significantly in the history of Viennese theatre - Emperor Joseph I had a big court theatre rapidly built by Francesco Galli-Bibiena, with two halls one for operatic festivities, the other for Italian players and 5 6 The establishment of the 'city of theatre' Singspiele ; this lasted till the s, when the halls were turned into ballrooms.
Opened in , these Redoutensdle survived until November , when they too burned down. In the meantime, Maria Theresia had granted Joseph Carl Selliers, one of the directors of the Karntnertortheater, permission to build, at his own cost, a theatre in an indoor tennis-court Ballhaus attached to the palace.
born Lugoj, Rumania, April 4, 1855; died Vienna, July 17, 1933
In March Selliers was given a contract to perform Italian operas in both theatres, with the Burgtheater earmarked for a double existence as opera-house and playhouse Opern- und Comoedienhaus. The new Comoedienhauft nechst der Koniglichen Burg opened in , but it posed financial problems for successive licensees. In Maria Theresia sanctioned the opening of a casino in a new building alongside the auditorium: this made a regular profit, and it may be that the nobility were deflected from the theatre by gambling. The same year the seating for the 'common people' in the pit was enlarged.
The theatre was reconstructed and extended several times, notably in , in when it was given a new fagade on the Michaelerplatz and the stage area was substantially enlarged , in , and again in The reconstructions in and established what would roughly remain the rather barn-like shape of the theatre until The original adaptation of the indoor tennis-court produced a narrow and high theatre it was about It protruded on to the Michaelerplatz at the stage end see plate 1. Estimates of the capacity vary: there were boxes for members of the court and for their attendants; there were benches in the stalls and in the uppermost gallery known in Vienna at this time, as in Paris, as 'paradise', a close equivalent to the English 'gods' ; and there was also standing room.
The most careful calculation based on the data for is that the auditorium may have held about , with about of the seats, according to the previous season's figures, committed to complimentary tickets. Nevertheless the narrowness of the theatre produced a distinctive atmosphere, facilitating a sense of close contact between the stage and audience which would eventually underlie the characteristic style the company developed in the nineteenth century.
The move to suppress extemporized comedy in favour of controlled performance of written comedy was part of the same process of enlightened despotism that also saw the introduction in of a centralized system of censorship for printed books. At the same time, the Hanswurststreit was both a sign of growing interest in the theatre and a stimulus for progress. With the exception of the work of one gifted playwright, Philipp Hafner, the popular drama of the dialect stage was still crude in mid-century, and this underlined the need for reform in the spirit of the Enlightenment.
Hafner was not a supporter of extemporization, the unpredictability and potential vacuity of which he satirized in a parody of a scenario,12 but he was very much a theatrical dramatist, opposed to the tyranny of literary theorists. He died after only two years' writing for the stage, and his total output was only eight plays, but in adaptations by Joachim Perinet some of them continued to be performed until the mid nineteenth century.
In works like the satirical Die biirgerliche Dame, about a bourgeois woman who gives herself aristocratic airs, the lighter Etwas zum Lachen im Fasching, centring on a loose-living philanderer both of which contain roles for Hanswurst , and the parody Evakathel und Schnudi, a burlesque of The establishment of the 'city of theatre3 bombastic tragedy, Hafner anticipated important strands in the later development of Viennese popular drama, though his achievement as one of its founding fathers was recognized only when Grillparzer's uncle, Joseph Sonnleithner, published an edition of his works in The reformers were led by the influential Joseph von Sonnenfels, who was appointed the first professor of cameralistics in the University of Vienna in and also engaged actively in journalistic debate from the mids.
It was his Briefe iiber die wienerische Schaubuhne that brought the controversy to a head.